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:: Volume 11, Issue 41 (Winter 2020) ::
تاریخ فرهنگ و تمدن اسلامی 2020, 11(41): 73-94 Back to browse issues page
Transformation and Evolution of Monograms in Islamic Civilization
Abbas Ahmadvand *
Associate Professor, Department of History and Civilization of Islamic Nations, Shahid Beheshti University; Lecturer in Islamic studies , a_ahmadvand@sbu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (1497 Views)
Toghra (monogram) is an originally Turkish word that is also used in Arabic and Persian languages. In the ancient tradition of the Turkic rulers of Turkestan, monogram as a written sign was equivalent to signing or approving and validating a decree. Later, with the rise of the Turks in the Eastern Islamic lands to India and East Asia and the expansion of their political power in the Ottoman Empire to the Islamic Maghreb and Eastern Europe, the monogram became widespread as a part of the Muslim administrative organization and had a special system. In addition to joining the Muslim bureaucracy, which grew to the level of a diwani, monogram also found an artistic aspect, and many calligraphers and painters experimented with it and created valuable examples of art until the end of the Ottoman Empire. The present study uses the approach of historical contextology to investigate the emergence and evolution of monogram in Islamic civilization.
Keywords: Toghra, Toghraee, Toghra Diwan, Monogram, Tamgha, Ottoman.
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Received: 2020/06/7 | Accepted: 2020/10/28 | Published: 2020/12/27
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Ahmadvand A. Transformation and Evolution of Monograms in Islamic Civilization. تاریخ فرهنگ و تمدن اسلامی. 2020; 11 (41) :73-94
URL: http://tarikh.maaref.ac.ir/article-1-1333-en.html

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Volume 11, Issue 41 (Winter 2020) Back to browse issues page
فصلنامه علمی تاریخ فرهنگ و تمدن اسلامی The History of Islamic Culture and Civilization A Quarterly Research Journal
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